Australia’s Northern Territory is one of the best places in the country to learn about and immerse yourself in Aboriginal culture, dating back millennia. Many of the most culturally significant sites are concentrated in what is known as the ‘Top End’ area, meaning they can all be visited as part of a single trip.

It’s a journey unlike any other in the world. Visitors will see beautiful artwork that charts a long, unique history, and learn about the Dreamtime, the creation stories of the Indigenous people. This region of the country is rich in natural wonders, and understanding the role they play in the culture of the local people offers unique insight and fresh perspective on some of Australia’s most famous sights.

Here are the Aboriginal cultural sites in Australia’s Top End you absolutely shouldn’t miss.

Nourlangie Rock

Arguably the best of the numerous Aboriginal rock art sites found in Kakadu National Park, Nourlangie Rock is a towering outpost of the rock escarpment that runs through the park. The paintings preserved here track the history of the area’s Indigenous people, from early depictions of animals drawn to alert others to potential prey, through to the arrival of westerners and their first encounters with the locals.

Aboriginal art Nourlangie Rock Australia

Most striking of the paintings is the depiction of the Lightning Man, Creation Ancestor Namarrgon, as well as his wife Barrginij and their children. The rock itself also features in the local Dreamtime stories, lending particular resonance to the site.  

Ubirr

While you’re in Kakadu National Park, you shouldn’t miss Ubirr. The art here is not quite as old as that found elsewhere – the oldest is a 3000-year old depiction of a now-extinct Tasmanian tiger – but it offers fine examples of the x-ray style of painting used to portray local wildlife, as well as westerners smoking their characteristic pipes. You can also see Mimi spirits here, mischievous figures drawn in seemingly unreachable places. Local stories tell of the spirits bringing the rocks down to paint themselves on, and then returning them up high on the rock face.

Ubirr Kakadu Australia sunset

We recommend visiting Ubirr close to sunset. Climb to the top of the rock for panoramic views across the floodplains.

Arnhem Land

Arnhem Land is a large region of the Northern Territory given over to the Indigenous people, who have lived there continuously for tens of thousands of years. You could almost consider it a different country: the people live on small outstations with very little western influence on their lives. In this way, they can live as close to tradition as is currently possible.

Kakadu National Park ridge

Visitors require permission to enter Arnhem Land, and will usually do so as part of a guided tour. Guides are often local people, offering unrivalled access to their lives and culture.

Nitmiluk National Park

Nitmiluk National Park is another area of astounding natural beauty that is also hugely significant in Aboriginal culture. Visitors here tend to flock to Katherine Gorge, where you can take boat tours through the extensive gorge system. There are many sites here significant to the local Jawoyn tribe. Most dramatic is a deep part of the gorge believed to be the home of the Rainbow Serpent, a key figure in the Dreamtime creation stories.

Katherine South Rockhole Australia

Art sites can be found throughout Nitmiluk, including some of the oldest paintings in Australia. While many are closed to the public, those on display represent the entire range of Aboriginal styles throughout history.

Top Didj Cultural Experience

Another unmissable stop in the Katherine area is the Top Didj Cultural Experience, an authentic and educational hands-on Indigenous workshop. Led by an indigenous guide, visitors paint their own Aboriginal-style art, learn how to make fire with sticks, and test their prowess at throwing spears and boomerangs.

Katherine Top Didj Experience

An art gallery on site displays and sells gorgeous artwork and sculptures from Indigenous artists, allowing you to take home an authentic souvenir and contribute to local people.