The climate is tropical along the coast and eastern plains; cold in the highlands; periodic droughts. Colombia is an equatorial country, so there are no seasons, what Colombians normally refer to as winter is the rainy season. Cities such as Bogotá, Tunja, and Pasto have been known to reach temperatures below 0 degrees Celsius, so if you are sensitive to cold weather, be prepared. Some mountains are also covered in snow perenially. Cities along the Atlantic coast (Cartagena, Barranquilla, Santa Marta) are hot and humid, while some cities at mid-altitude in the Andes (Medellín, Manizales and other cities in the Coffee Triangle region) have 'everlasting spring' weather.
Flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes Mountains, eastern lowland plains.
Natural hazards - highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional earthquakes. Recent volcanic disaster occurred in Armero, 1985. 25,000 people were buried by lahars that the Nevado del Ruiz produced.
Highest point: Pico Cristobal Colon 5,775 m (18950 ft) of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. The mountain is the world's highest coastal range. note: nearby Pico Simon Bolivar has the same elevation.
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